Mapping is not always possible with kinematic GPS. There are many situations in our applications where we can not use GPS, such as in canyons, under heavy foliage. A modern and accurate total station is then the best alternative.
We are equipped with a Leica TPS1200 + Total Station for accurate mapping. To perform the measurements, one person is enough to apply a reflector with remote control. Even without a reflector, it is no problem to map up to distances of several hundred meters.
We applied this technique in the Swiss Alps valleys where we set up two GPS stations in an open area and transmitted the coordinates along the valley by total station.